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Weather hazards

1       Introduction 

Weather hazards 

In this topic, you learn how to use the functions related to weather hazards. 

We estimate that this will take 7 minutes to complete.

2       Detailed explanation 

Weather hazards

The HAZARD tab is located in the Layers menu. You can activate the options in this layer to display flight hazards so that you can optimize flight routes or improve flight decisions based on these hazards. The hazards include:
 

        Global ozone forecast: forecasting position and the concentration of the ozone layer
 

        EDR turbulence: turbulence at multiple flight levels as well as forecast periods globally or for the North American Mesoscale Model (NAM)
 

        Icing forecast: forecasts for icing for different flight levels, as well as forecast periods over NAM and globally
 

        EDR thunderstorms forecast: forecast convective activity and intensity for different forecast periods globally and for NAM.

The HAZARD tab is available only if you subscribe for weather information for at least one region. 

Let's start by viewing the global ozone forecast.

Interaction 2Interaction 1

Interaction 1 Click the Layers menu button.

Interaction 2 Click the Global Ozone Forecast slider.

Interaction 1

After Global Ozone Forecast is turned on, you can see where the layer of ozone is featured. Currently, it is showing the forecast for the next six hours. You can change the forecast to show 6,12,18 or 24 hours in the past or in the future. Let's go ahead and change the forecast time period.

Interaction 1 Click the Forecast hours + button.

The ozone forecast uses two colors to indicate different concentration levels:

 

 

Clicking within a depicted shape displays more detailed information.

 

Concentration is measured in parts per million (ppm). The upper range in the chart on the left indicates that there are 0.25 parts of gas (ozone) in every 1 million parts of total gas.

Increasing the time from six to twelve changes the area to which the ozone warning applies.

Use the slider to activate or deactivate this feature. 

Let's look at the turbulence levels. 

Interaction 3Interaction 2Interaction 1

Interaction 1 Click the Layers menu button.

Interaction 2 Click the EDR Turbulence input field.

EDR (Eddy Dissipation Rate) is an objective, aircraft-independent, measure of turbulence based on the rate at which energy dissipates in the atmosphere. It is a universal measure of the turbulent state of the atmosphere. It presents you with turbulence at multiple flight levels and forecast periods.  Your choice of flight levels are: 050, 100, 125, 180, 240, 270, 300, 320, 340, 370, 390, 450, and 530.

You can view the turbulence globally or by North America, by turning on either the Global or NAM view.
Let's turn on the NAM turbulence at FL240 because we are currently viewing the US.

Interaction 3 Click the NAM slider.

Interaction 1

You can now see the turbulence presented clearly over North America. 

The colors of the turbulence are based on the following table:
 
 

The legend shows the relative intensities for each type of aircraft. The aircraft weight (Heavy, Medium, Light). The legend shows the turbulence intensity based on EDR value as either light, moderate, severe, or extreme in the color bar. The bar for each aircraft weight is shown.

You can view the turbulence at different flight levels by using the buttons. Let's change the flight level.

Interaction 1 Click the NAM FL - button.

Interaction 1

You can see the new flight level. Let's change the time.

Interaction 1 Click Next Hours +.

You can now see turbulence for FL180 forecast for the next three hours.

Let's display the forecast turbulence for 1-18 hours in the future.

Interaction 1

Click within the depicted turbulence to display more detailed information in the Weather information pane on the right. 

Interaction 1 Click the Close button.

The current EDR value present is 0.2. Typically EDR varies from close to 0, "smooth", to near 1, "extreme for most aircraft types.
 
The actual EDR table displays contours which are multiplied by 100.

In our example 0.2x100= 20, this is displayed in the green area.

Interaction 1

Interaction 1 Click Global.

NAM turbulence has now been turned off. 

Next, let's turn on the Global turbulence. You can change the flight level, similarly to NAM, and the forecast period from 6-36 hours in the future.

We can see the turbulence globally. This is graphically different from viewing NAM turbulence. 

Clicking on part of the shape will present you with detailed information. Remember to multiply the value by 100 to get the EDR rate.

The colors of the turbulence is based on the following table:
 
 

The legend shows the relative intensities for each type of aircraft. The aircraft weight (Heavy, Medium, Light). The legend shows the turbulence intensity based on EDR value as either light, moderate, severe, or extreme in the color bar. The bar for each aircraft weight is shown.

Let's turn on the icing forecast.

Interaction 2Interaction 1

Interaction 1 Click the Icing Forecast slider.

Icing can be visible globally or NAM only. Icing presents you with graphical forecasts of slight, moderate, and heavy icing. Let's turn on the global icing.

Interaction 2 Click the Global slider.

Interaction 1

You are now viewing icing at FL050 for the next 6 hours. Let's see turn on NAM icing forecast. 

Interaction 1 Click the NAM slider.

Icing is set for all aircraft types and color coded to different intensities these are as follows:
 

You can change the global flight level and hours by using the  + and - buttons. The forecast periods are from 6 - 36 hours in the future. 

Interaction 1

The depiction is slightly different for NAM so let's turn off the global display to isolate the North American weather situation.

Interaction 1 Click the Global slider.

NAM hours forecast periods are from 1-18 hours in the future.

Interaction 1

Now we are looking at only NAM icing conditions. Click on any part of the image to view detailed information.

  

You can see here that you will get a good indication on the category of the icing.
 

Interaction 1 Click the Close button.

Interaction 2Interaction 1

Interaction 1 Click the EDR Thunderstorms Forecast slider.

EDR thunderstorm forecast presents you with a forecast for convective activity and intensity that covers a global and North America scale. Let's view the global thunderstorm forecast for six hours into the future.

Interaction 2 Click the Global slider.

We can now see the forecast thunderstorms globally for the next six hours. The colors are related to the convective intensity.

Clicking within the image brings up some detailed information.

Interaction 1 Please click Next to continue.

You can select from the forecast period available 6-36 hours in the future. Use the  to change the time.

Interaction 1

You can see detailed information regarding an area of thunderstorm that you have clicked on. Vertical velocity intensity is from 5-50+ meters/second. The higher the numbers the more intense activity is forecasted.

Interaction 1 Click the Close button.

Interaction 1

Interaction 1 Click the NAM slider.

Interaction 1

Let's turn off the global weather to see NAM weather clearer.

Interaction 1 Click the Global slider.

You can now see the NAM thunderstorm forecast for one hour into the future. Similar to the global convective scale, you can click on the layer to view detailed information.

You can select the forecast period available by using the buttons. The forecast period is 1-18 hours into the future.

The depiction for NAM and global thunderstorm is a little different. However, the colors and information are from the same scale. 
 

 



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